Aiven for ClickHouse® service architecture#

Aiven for ClickHouse® is implemented as a multi-master cluster where the replication of data is managed by ClickHouse itself, the replication of schema and users is managed by ZooKeeper, and data backup and restoration is managed by Astacus. Discover the technical design behind Aiven for ClickHouse: its structure and operation. This article helps you understand how Aiven for ClickHouse is set up and configured to work as a managed service.

Deployment modes#

Aiven for ClickHouse can be deployed either as a single node, a single shard of three nodes, or multiple shards of three nodes each.

  • With a single shard, all data is present in all servers and all servers can be used for reads and writes (no main server, leader, or replica).

  • With multiple shards, the data is split between all shards and the data of each shard is present in all nodes of the shard.

Each Aiven for ClickHouse service is exposed as a single server URL pointing to all servers with connections going randomly to any of the servers. ClickHouse is responsible for replicating the writes between the servers. For synchronizing critical low-volume information between servers, Aiven for ClickHouse relies on ZooKeeper, which runs on each ClickHouse server.

Coordinating services#

Each Aiven for Clickhouse node runs Clickhouse, ZooKeeper, and Astacus.

ZooKeeper#

ZooKeeper is responsible for the cross-nodes coordination and synchronization of the following replication processes:

  • Replication of database changes across the cluster: CREATE, UPDATE, or ALTER TABLE (by ClickHouse’s Replicated database engine)

  • Replication of table data across the cluster (by ClickHouse’s ReplicatedMergeTree table engine). Data itself is not written to ZooKeeper but transferred directly between ClickHouse servers.

  • Replication of the storage of Users, Roles, Quotas, Row Policies for the whole cluster (by ClickHouse).

    Note

    Storing entities such as Users, Roles, Quotas, and Row Policies in ZooKeeper ensures that Role Based Access Control (RBAC) is applied consistently over the entire cluster. This type of entity storage was developed at Aiven and is now part of the upstream ClickHouse.

ZooKeeper handles one process per node and is accessible only from within the cluster.

Astacus#

Astacus is an open-source project originated at Aiven for coordinating backups of cluster databases, including ClickHouse.

Data architecture#

Aiven for ClickHouse enforces

  • Full schema replication: all databases, tables, users, and grants are the same on all nodes.

  • Full data replication: table rows are the same on all nodes within a shard.

Astacus does most of the backup and restore operations.

Engines: database and table#

ClickHouse has engines in two flavors: table engines and database engines.

  • Database engine is responsible for manipulating tables and decides what happens when you try to list, create, or delete a table. It can also be used to restrict a database to specific table engine or to manage replication.

  • Table engine decides how to store data on a disk or how to enable reading data from outside the disk to expose it as a virtual table.

Replicated database engine#

The default ClickHouse database engine is the Atomic engine, responsible for creating table metadata on the disk and configuring which table engines are allowed in each database.

Aiven for ClickHouse uses the Replicated database engine, which is a variant of Atomic. With this engine variant, queries for creating, updating, or altering tables are replicated to all other servers using ZooKeeper. As a result, all servers can have the same table schema, which makes them an actual data cluster and not multiple independent servers that can talk to each other.

Replicated table engine#

The table engine is responsible for the INSERT and SELECT queries. From a wide variety of available table engines, the most common ones belong to the MergeTree engines family, which is supported in Aiven for ClickHouse.

See also

For a list of all the table engines that you can use in Aiven for ClickHouse, see Supported table engines in Aiven for ClickHouse.

MergeTree engine#

With the MergeTree engine, at least one new file is created for each INSERT query and each new file is written once and never modified. In the background, new files (called parts) are re-read, merged, and rewritten into compact form. Writing data in parts determines the performance profile of ClickHouse.

  • INSERT queries need to be batched to avoid handling a number of small parts.

  • UPDATE and DELETE queries need to be batched. Removing or updating a single row requires rewriting an entire part with all the rows except the one we want to remove or update.

  • SELECT queries are executed rapidly because all the data found in a part is valid and all files can be cached since they never change.

ReplicatedMergeTree engine#

Each engine of the MergeTree family has a matching ReplicatedMergeTree engine, which additionally enables the replication of all writes using ZooKeeper. The data itself doesn’t travel through ZooKeeper and is actually fetched from one ClickHouse server to another. A shared log of update queries is maintained with ZooKeeper. All nodes add entries to the queue and watch for changes to execute the queries.

When a query to create a table using the MergeTree engine arrives, Aiven for ClickHouse automatically rewrites the query to use the ReplicatedMergeTree engine so that all tables are replicated and all servers have the same table data, which in fact makes the group of servers a high-availability cluster.